An Overview of Mediterranean History, 1200-25 B.C.E.

DATE (B.C.E.)

ISRAEL

GREECE

ROME

1200

Exodus

Fall of Troy, dark ages begin

 

1000

David and Solomon

   

922

Division of Kingdom

   

800

 

Adoption of Phoenician alphabet, Homeric poems

 

753

 

(Hesiod)

Rome founded

722

Fall of North

   

616

   

Etruscan kings (616-510)

586

Fall of South

(Pre-Socractic philosophers, such as Solon, Xeonophanes)

 

538

Return of some exiles

   

516

Temple rebuilt

 

(Republic established, 510)

500-400

Ezra and Nehemiah

Euripides, Sophocles

 

400-300

 

Socrates (469-399)

Struggle of patricians & plebeians (to 287)

300-200

Seleucids struggle with Ptolemies for control of Palestine

Plato (429-347), Aristotle (384-322), Alexander the Great (336-323), rise of Stoicism (Zeno, 333-261)

First Punic War (264-241) Hannibalic War (218-201)

200-100

Maccabean revolt (168-165)

Philip V defeated by Romans (197), Philosophers travel to Rome (156)

Conquer Macedon, Africa, Greece, Spain

100

Qumran (early stage); Herod (40-4)

 

Completes conquests of territory previously held by Greeks

25

(under Herod)

 

Empire established