These fonts are for free use and distribution under GNU General Public License
Printable instructions for installing CSX+ and Times-Norman fonts.
**To download, depress the "shift" key while clicking on the desired font **All documentation below will be downloaded with the fonts
| CSX+ Fonts
New Century Schoolbook
| Times-Norman Fonts
Times-Norman Type 1 PostScript Fonts
(.pfb, .afm, .pfm and .inf files)
Times-Norman TrueType fonts
for use with Windows
|About the CSX+ Fonts||About the Norman fonts|
The fonts in this archive implement the character set designed by
Professor K. R. Norman of the University of Cambridge for use in
printing Indian language material in Roman script. They are based on
fonts designed by
URW++ Design and Development Incorporated
Poppenbuetteler Bogen 29A
and made available under the terms of the GNU General Public
License, a copy of which is included in this archive in the file
COPYING. The chief provisions of the GPL are that software licensed
under it may be freely redistributed provided the author's copyright
is properly acknowledged. As permitted under Section 2 of the GPL, I
have modified the fonts to implement the Norman encoding, using a
program I have written to create arbitrarily accented Type 1
PostScript fonts. Conversion from PostScript to Macintosh and
Windows versions of TrueType was done with the Macintosh program
Fontographer. Alec McAllister kindly helped group the Windows fonts
into a proper font "family". The modified fonts, like the originals,
are distributed under the GPL. However, the copyright remains with
URW++ Design and Development Incorporated. The modified fonts were
created on May 19, 1997.
The particular fonts used in this archive are based on the font
NimbusRomNo9L, which is URW++'s name for their Times-lookalike.
After consulting with existing users of Professor Norman's fonts and
with Professor Norman himself, I have introduced a small number of
changes to the character set. (1) "Retroflex t" appears, as before,
at character position 160 decimal; however, that position is
inaccessible to many Windows users (it is used for non-breaking
space), so a second copy of "retroflex t" has been placed at 173
decimal instead of the "notequal" sign that used to be there. If you
need "notequal" it can be found in the Symbol font. (2) In an
earlier release of versions of Professor Norman's fonts for the PC,
a copy of "retroflex t" was placed at character position 202
decimal. This causes problems when the fonts are used on a
Macintosh, and the character has been removed from that position.
(3) The characters "vocalic R", "long vocalic r", "vocalic r acute"
and "long vocalic r acute" (positions 244, 165, 218, 225 decimal)
are now defined with a subscript dot rather than a subscript ring.
The Macintosh versions of the fonts (both TrueType and PostScript) are
contained in the self-extracting archive tm-norm.hqx. TrueType fonts
for use under Windows are in the zip-file tm-norm.zip. Type 1
PostScript fonts (.pfb, .afm, .pfm and .inf files) are in
The definition file used to create the modified font contains a
complete character-by-character listing: it is included in this
archive in the file NORMAN.DEF.
Please email any problems to firstname.lastname@example.org.
John D. Smith
1. CSX+ is a character set (encoding) for use with Indian
languages. In addition to the standard ASCII characters, it contains
a large set of special accented characters (many of which are useful
for non-Indian languages as well). It is based on the earlier CSX
(Classical Sanskrit eXtended) character set, which was drawn up at
the 8th World Sanskrit Conference, Vienna, 1990, and which has been
in widespread use since that time.
2. The underlying philosophy is that CSX+ ought to be a strict
superset of CSX, so that "upgrading" is painless; CSX text should
appear unchanged in CSX+ fonts. Specifically, (A) there should be no
changes to the position of existing CSX characters; (B) no existing
CSX character should be deleted; (C) no attempt should be made to
map approved usage on to the encoding: "r-underdot-macron" will
appear in the same place in CSX+ as it does in CSX, even though the
draft ISO standard (see 4 below) states that the preferred usage for
Sanskrit long vocalic "r" is "r-underring-macron". (The form with
underring will also be made available, of course.)
3. A single compromise has proved to be necessary, in the area of
aim (A) above. CSX, which came into being in the MS-DOS era and is
based on code-page 437 (the original PC encoding), uses position 160
(decimal) for a-acute. That slot on modern PCs is sacred to the
non-breaking space; the character has thus become inaccessible to
many people, and will have to be moved to a new position.
Fortunately, this one incompatible change will not inconvenience the
majority of users: documents containing Vedic are likely to be the
biggest problem. (The Macintosh uses slot 202 for its non-breaking
space, and this too will be held vacant.)
4. Most of the new characters are those required for the draft ISO
standard for transliteration of Indian languages (ISO/TC46/SC2),
which specifies the following characters that do not form part of
CSX. Only lower-case versions are shown, and where the standard
proposes a "productive" usage (e.g. "tilde over a vowel means
nasalised vowel"), only forms known to occur are included (so no
5. In addition to the above, the following further characters have
been added as being centrally useful in any text font: quotedblleft,
quotedblright, endash, emdash. ("Smart quotes" cannot, alas, be made
to work in Word, since the program assumes that the characters in
question are located at specific positions, and none of the
positions in question is free for this use.)
6. There is a single "European" accented character, y-dieresis,
that CSX inherited from the original PC character set (code page
437) but that is unlikely to be required for any Indian or European
language. It has been eliminated to save one character slot. Other
"casualties" have been the currency symbols sterling, yen and cent,
and the guillemots.
7. The remaining assignments have been made on the basis that the
best use for the small number of spare slots available is to use
them for capitalised versions of those new characters with the most
need for capital forms -- i.e., characters capable of beginning a
Version 2, June 1991
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END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS
Appendix: How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs
If you develop a new program, and you want it to be of the greatest
possible use to the public, the best way to achieve this is to make it
free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms.
To do so, attach the following notices to the program. It is safest
to attach them to the start of each source file to most effectively
convey the exclusion of warranty; and each file should have at least
the "copyright" line and a pointer to where the full notice is found.
Copyright (C) 19yy
This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
(at your option) any later version.
This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
GNU General Public License for more details.
You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software
Foundation, Inc., 675 Mass Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.
Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail.
If the program is interactive, make it output a short notice like this
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Gnomovision version 69, Copyright (C) 19yy name of author
Gnomovision comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY; for details type `show w'.
This is free software, and you are welcome to redistribute it
under certain conditions; type `show c' for details.
The hypothetical commands `show w' and `show c' should show the appropriate
parts of the General Public License. Of course, the commands you use may
be called something other than `show w' and `show c'; they could even be
mouse-clicks or menu items--whatever suits your program.
You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or your
school, if any, to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the program, if
necessary. Here is a sample; alter the names:
Yoyodyne, Inc., hereby disclaims all copyright interest in the program
`Gnomovision' (which makes passes at compilers) written by James Hacker.
Ty Coon, President of Vice
This General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into
proprietary programs. If your program is a subroutine library, you may
consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with the
library. If this is what you want to do, use the GNU Library General
Public License instead of this License.